statics take home test

Fall 2018 Statics Mid-Term Exam 3 Take-Home Name:

Please show all free body diagrams and the corresponding equilibrium equations that you use. Neat

freehand sketches are fine. Write the general forms of the equilibrium equations (ΣFX = 0, ΣFX = 0, ΣMA =

0) first before writing out the forces and moments specific to that problem. The paper is out of 100

points, and there are 25 bonus points including the extra credit question.

1) If a 200 N force is applied on the cutting tool as shown, determine the corresponding force

acting at point E. (Hint 1: Remember that each component of a machine is a rigid body and

every component must be in equilibrium, Hint 2: Write out all the equilibrium equations for

each component first, that will direct you at how to solve for the unknown forces, Hint 3: Use

equilibrium equations that you did not use for solving as a check). (20 points)

2) Solve for all the joint forces in the following frame. The suspended bob has a mass of 100 kg.

Note that member ABDF is one monolithic member. (20 points)

3) For the beam shown below, draw the bending moment and shear force diagrams. You could

use either the short procedure shown in class, or the full calculation, either is okay. Either way,

please label the values of the bending moments and shear forces at points where the graph

changes shape. (30 points)

4) For the cable given below, the total length is given to be 35 feet. Determine the reactions at the

supports A and B, and the tension values in each of its segments. (Hint: Since the total length of

the beam is given, use pythogorean triplets to figure out the coordinates of point C, at which the

load acts). (20 points)

5) Draw the free body diagram for one simple structure (machine, frame, truss etc.) that you use in

daily life directly or indirectly. Make sure to reduce it to the most basic form possible, showing

only required geometry and joints. (2D idealization would be fine, 3D is okay too). Show the

free body diagram for the entire structure as well as the free body diagrams for each of the

component members. Make sure to include applied loads. (Examples: pliers, idealized frame of

your apartment/house, door frame, wall-mount frame for TV/Pictures etc., dining table). (20


Extra Credit: Using the reactions obtained in problem 2, draw the axial force diagram, shear force

diagram, and bending moment diagram for members ABDF and ECD. (15 points)

25 kips

9 m 16 m



Designing A Fuel Cell Electrode For Efficient Oxygen Reduction


About fuel cell, presentation  PowerPoint 

a.     Literature Review of your topic: What is the motivation? Define the principles, key terms, background information 

• Discuss limitations of the ORR reaction in fuel cells

• optimizing ORR in non-platinum cathodes and summarize 

b.     Objective of your project: a clear, concise statement of the research question(s) to be investigated and your general overview of methods used. 

Proposed Methods: describe the experiment(s) and what measurements you plan to perform (pictures or diagrams are very helpful!).  Also include how and why were these measurements to be performed (i.e. how are these measurements used to study the questions of interest?).  Explain how the raw data will be analyzed and what equations will be used to analyze the data. 

• Discuss cathode material selection, nickel, gold, cobalt

• Comsol simulation modelling

• Taguchi design parameters, and control sample info

• Discuss experimental setup

Proposed Plan: describe the detailed plan of your project from now to end of April 2018. You can use the Gantt Chart. Map how this plan can ensure the completion of your project and what is your backup plan.

• include details for first round of fabrication. 

Conclusions: summarize the major findings and conclusions about the about the project.  Were your objectives met?

Cultural Differences Between Brazil And United States Of America

If you are an international student or a permanent resident or the United States, you will compare your original culture to the mainstream American culture using the Kluckhohn Model of Comparative Cultures. If you consider your culture the mainstream American culture, you will select another country to compare their culture to yours.

  • Compare and contrast the two cultures using the Kluckhohn Model of Comparative Cultures. What aspects of these two cultures are similar and what aspects are different?
  • Determine how the styles of verbal and nonverbal communication are different for the two cultures.
  • Describe situations in which it would be very likely to have a miscommunication between people from these two cultures, if the different communication styles are not know or recognized.
  • Infer how people from the other culture feel the first time they interact with your culture. How would you feel in their situation? What would you like people from the other culture do to make you feel welcome?
  • Propose recommendations for people of these two cultures to avoid potential misunderstandings or conflicts due to the differences in communication styles.

Construction Codes Assignment

The purpose of this project is to develop a written manual and video to show homeowners the permitting process and code compliance required for most common residential housing renovations. This project will promote the student’s active learning by discovering the process that must be followed to properly execute permit-regulated construction activities, to apply the concepts learned during class and further research additional codes such as electrical and plumbing. Students will contact their local city building department for specific instructions for permits in their community. The final project outcomes, namely the written report and video will effectively help local homeowners to understand the permitting process and the basic construction requirements that fulfill the current code. This will also help them identify the contractors that are properly following city regulations and increase the value of their own property

Theme 1 – Bathroom Remodeling a bathroom, including finishes, waterproofing, new vanity, tub, toilet, etc… Updating existing bathroom to current electrical and plumbing codes. Subcontracts involved in the project, permits. (This is for a simple remodel without structural modifications. Permit and construction requirements, trades involved.

(2 each) “ so just chose two of these and do it”

Procedure Each group will:

1. Describe the scope of their project

2. Give a general overview of what homeowners shall check if they hire a contractor or subcontractor (such as license, references)

3. Describe the elements associated with the management of the project (i.e. requesting a minimum number of quotes, not paying in advance, etc..)

4. Identify the permits that are needed for their given project.

5. Determine the requirements to pursue the project as a build by owner or contracted project.

6. Determine the minimum design (such as minimum surface, windows, layout) and space requirement based on building codes.

7. Determine the plumbing / mechanical code requirements (if applies)

8. Determine the electrical code requirements (if applies) 9. Include a checklist of the main elements to verify

VLSI Cadence Project

I need the help for lab3 for VLSI cadence project design. I need it to be finished in two days. Please view the whole pdf carefully and when you think you are capable to do it on time and complete perfectly, let me know. I don’t responds to random messages

University of Southern California Department of Electrical Engineering – Systems

EE 477 Laboratory #3 (worth 20% of final grade) Final Project: Neuron Design updated 11/18 4:05 PM Changed/added

remarks in red, Testing Table Added Due 12/3/18 5:00 PM

There will be no extensions so plan your time accordingly!

Required contents of the report appear in purple.

This is a long lab so be sure you scroll to the end to see all the information. Be sure to follow the rules given below near the end of this lab document.

The Digital Neurons This lab is the design of two special-purpose digital circuits that mimic neurons (brain cells) Be sure to finish and test your schematic of each neuron before you start the neuron layout.

The Two Neurons:

There are two neurons with 5 inputs to each neuron:

a data input to the neuron, D that could be different every clock cycle a single-bit inhibitory input I, Load control signal, that allows the output firing flip flop to be loaded with a new value, Set control signal that sets the flip flop by loading Vdd., and a clock with duty cycle of your choice.

Name your signals as shown in bold above, with D1 being the first neuron data input, and D2 the second one. The output of the neurons should be named AP1 and AP2. It is important you follow this naming convention so we can verify that your circuit works. You can create inverted signals like NotLoad in the neuron itself.

The basic Neuron Function:

Each data input and control input is a single bit. The inhibitory input I is a single bit. It prevents the neuron from firing as long as it is held to “1” (Vdd) The neuron output contains one firing flip-flop you designed in Lab 2, and the output of the flip flop AP1 or AP2 represents the outputs of the two neurons. The neurons “fire” when their inputs D have the sequence 1001 for Neuron 1 or 1111 for Neuron 2 and I =0. Each neuron loads 1 into the output flip flop for one clock cycle when the input sequence is correct and then resets it by loading 0 into the output flip flop on the next clock cycle. After the positive edge of the clock, if the neuron fires, the output of the firing flip-flop AP goes from low to high. The output remains high until the next rising clock, when it is lowered. Load is normally held high, but is lowered if we want to emulate a neuron failing to fire due to lack of sleep or similar circumstance. Note that you might find a way to use the compound gate you designed in Lab 1. You do not have to use it at all.

For example, if the inputs are 1111 in sequence, the output flip flop of Neuron 2 will be set (fire) and AP will go high, but will ignore the next data input and will reset the flip flop instead.

Design the circuit to be a Mealy Machine, where the output (the firing flip flop) is derived from the present state and the inputs during the current clock cycle. The next state of the flip flop is also a function of the present state and the inputs.

A block diagram of the neuron is shown below.

Sample Timing Diagram for the Two Neurons:

Below is a sample timing diagram for the neurons that you will need to simulate correctly. This just shows how the neurons are supposed to behave. A required test sequence will be provided by the weekend.

The Laboratory Steps: Testing Strategy:

Here is a testing strategy that might be useful to you: Design the neuron schematic block by block and test after you add each block. Then design the neuron layout and test each part as you build it. Repeat this for the second neuron. Design and test at each stage.

Design and Test Steps:


1. Design your neuron circuit schematic and create a Cadence circuit (schematic) diagram using the circuits/cells you have designed in Labs 1 and 2. You cannot design new cells for Lab assignment 3 unless you had problems with the other labs or lost points. Include your logic/gate level diagram for your neurons.

2. Simulate your neuron schematics to ensure that your two designs work correctly. Set takes priority over other signals. I (inhibit takes priority otherwise). Use the following sequence of inputs for initial testing of your schematic:

a) Set load to 1 and keep it high. All other inputs except clock (and set if you assert it high) should be 0, including I. Set your neuron flip flop.

b) Set load to 1 and keep it high. Then test your neuron by sequencing through the inputs shown in the timing diagram and the test table.

c) Now set load to 0 (zero). Set the data inputs to produce outputs 11, and I = 0. The flip flop output should remain zero.

3. Lay out your neurons.

4. Use LVS to verify your layouts prior to SPECTRE simulation. Important note: Any pins in your layout labeled the same should be physically connected to each other.

5. Simulate your neuron layouts with SPECTRE to ensure that your design works correctly using the same sequence of inputs as in Step 2, and measure the smallest clock period that is possible for both neurons. Show the waveforms you used to measure the clock period.

a. For each neuron show all inputs D, Set, Load and I together in a panel and in a second panel show the output AP and clock together. (note: not following instructions will lead to deduction of points). There should be 4 panels, 2 for each neuron.

b. Submit a zoom-in of the same waveforms around the time the output transitions occur.

Note: Be sure each output AP transition occurs before the next falling edge of the clock. The output transition should reach at least 90% of Vdd when rising or 10% of Vdd when falling, before the falling edge of the clock.

TEST INPUTS/OUTPUTS for the two Neurons Test data for Neural Network – Test a few clock cycles before testing the entire circuit Time T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 T13 T14 T15 INPUTS Load 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Set 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I1, I2 Inhibit

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

D1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 D2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 OUTPUTS AP1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 AP2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 All state FF’s

0 1 X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X – unique to your design

Rules: 1. You can use any combination of multiple clocks you wish, but only clock is an input to the circuit and you will have

to design circuits to generate the other clocks. 2. You need to generate all inverted inputs, including notclock and notload. They are not inputs to the circuit. You

need to generate them if you need them. 3. You must use the cells you designed in labs 1 and 2 to build your design. Do not change the circuit structure of

your cells unless your cells do not meet the requirements of lab 1a, lab 1b, lab 2a or lab 2b (i.e. you lost points). You can rearrange the layout slightly or resize transistors as needed while still meeting the requirements of labs 1 and 2. Do not change the methodology by rotating transistors, rearranging transistors, connecting inside the cell on different layers, or changing your interconnection strategy (for example, you might decide that all inputs come

in the top of the cell, so you can’t change that). You can move ntaps and ptaps around. 4. You must have ntaps and ptaps according to the rules. Make sure your ohmic contacts (ntaps and ptaps) meet the

following requirement: Every cell should have a well and substrate contact, including transmission gates, and of course the taps should be connected to Vdd and Gnd. For larger cells, include at least two contacts per 50×50 lambda, one for the psubstrate and the other for the nwell. Every separate block of nwell should have at least one ohmic contact. For all your contacts, you will get the best performance if you use multiple minimum-size contacts for large contact areas and not large contacts, as Cadence will do for you automatically.

5. You can tune the circuits by changing transistor sizes as needed or to squeeze out empty space while still meeting the requirements of labs 1 and 2. You can modify the layout of your cells from Labs 1 and 2 in minor ways in Lab 3 if you can see some ways to make the circuits smaller or faster. You can rotate and flip cells about the x and y axes.

6. You cannot remove unused inputs or unused logic from your cells. 7. You can use metal layers 1-4 for each neuron, and layers 1-6 for any external connections that go to the

inputs/outputs of the neurons. 8. All signals should use the names we have given. 9. As in Lab 2, the output transition of the flip flops including any setup time at any following flip flop inputs should

occur before the next falling edge of the clock. 10. For this lab, you can use any layout strategy you choose as long as it fits the cell methodology you have already

selected. 11. On your final two-neuron layout, all inputs and outputs to the circuit must be routed to the edges of the layout and

must be labeled using the pin names. Final Report Contents: Include in this lab report, in order:

1. A cover page showing name, student number, email address, date, the final area and delay of your two final neuron designs, and AREA-DELAY product. Your report file type should be lastnamefirstname.pdf. Do not submit other file formats, like .doc or .txt. The delay you should measure with SPECTRE simulations of your layout for your final neural network result is the clock cycle or clock period of the neural network layout assuming correct operation. Your output should appear before the clock falls again. The faster your clock cycle, the faster your circuit will function. Measure the area of your design in square microns. Your area should be the bounding box area of your design. If your design is not rectangular, include the wasted area in your area calculation. Compute the area-delay product of your neural network design and report it clearly at the beginning of the report so we can find it. Compute an area-delay product that is the area in square microns times the clock period. If you compute the area-delay product wrong, or you do not compute it you will lose points.

2. A description of the two neurons you built, including a transistor-level and gate-level circuit diagram (schematic) printed from Cadence, your simulation results (including waveform images) and a description of how your circuit was constructed using existing cells.

3. A floorplan of the neurons. A floorplan shows where on the layout you placed functions, without showing the details of the functions. Cadence might have a tool to do this for you but you need to draw it yourself for clarity. Try this link to see an example. You do not have to draw your floorplan over your layout image but it helps clarity.

4. Your neuron layout images and neuron and neuron layout simulation results as images. Make sure the layout and simulation images are of high enough resolution so that we can zoom in to check things. Put your input and output waveforms onto separate traces so we can read them more easily

5. A description of the simulation experiments you ran with SPECTRE for the neuron and neural network. Include (not in the report but as separate files) 1. SPECTRE netlist files for both schematic and layout of the neurons, generated by Cadence, which will include the technology file, the graphical stimulus files and the circuitry netlist. We need every netlist file you used for every simulation so that we can run your simulations in case your results are unexpected. 2. High resolution images of your neuron layouts and waveform files. This is so we can view the layout properly to check details. Make the waveform signals thick enough for us to see them.

Tar or zip this report along with the files specified above. Other formats besides Tar or zip will not be accepted. Upload your report to D2L, including your layout and simulation files as a TAR file so that we can test (simulate) your circuit to be sure it performs as specified. IMPORTANT: Once you upload there will be no deletions or reuploads allowed. All files should be in a single Tar or Zip file, uploaded to DEN. All layouts must be in color unless you obtain prior permission. Failure to follow these instructions could result in deduction of points.


For this lab, you can use any layout strategy you choose as long as it fits the cell methodology you have already selected. The goal is to minimize the area·delay product. Designs that are more square, rather than long, thin rectangles, tend to be better designs. The designer with the lowest area-delay product will win a prize, a gift certificate from Pay close attention to the specific delay you are to measure.

End of Lab 3

learning motivation and performance


  1. Theories are
    1. useful for model building but impractical for practitioners.
    1. generally developed by all of us to help us understand how things work in our world.
    1. concrete steps in the “how to” world.
    1. useful when they describe a set of facts and develop a logical rationale for what is likely to be true, given those facts.
    1. both B & D. (p.35)
  • Which of the following is not true about good theories?
    • They assemble a number of facts.
    • They develop logical rationale for what is likely to be true.
    • They do not have to be empirically tested because they are true. (p.35)
    • They have the ability to explain known facts in a simple manner.
  • Which of the following is not true regarding theories? 
    • They provide guidelines and principles.
    • They are abstractions that are best left for researchers and not applicable to practitioners. (p.36)
    • They provide principles and predictions.
    • Successful people in business pay attention to them.
  • The formula for performance (M x KSA x E) suggests
    • only two of the three factors need to be favorable to obtain high performance.
    • if motivation is high and KSAs are adequate, at least moderate performance will be achieved.
    • if the environment is highly conducive to high performance, then motivation is not very important.
    • none of the above are correct. (p.37)
  • What are the factors that interact to determine performance?
    • Knowledge, skills and attitudes
    • Environment, skills, and strategy
    • Attitudes, strategy, and motivation
    • Motivation, environment, and skills
    • None of the above (p.37)
  • According to needs theories which statement is not true?
    • Needs are the basis of our motivation.
    • Understanding needs helps you understand behaviour.
    • Reinforcement theory is a commonly applied needs theory. (p.38-41)
    • ERG is an acronym representing three basic needs of a needs theory.
    • Maslow and Alderfer are two researchers commonly linked to needs theory.
  • According to Alderfer’s ERG theory
    • self-actualization is the highest need.
    • the three sets of needs are set up hierarchically and lower levels need to be met before higher order needs.
    • the three sets of needs can exist at the same time, a hierarchy is not present. (p.39)
    • growth is actually Maslow’s esteem need.
  • In motivating trainees to learn, which of the following needs – existence, relatedness, or growth – should be the focus?
    • Existence
    • Relatedness
    • Growth
    • Both B & C
    • All of the above (p.40)
  • Who used the “law of effect” to develop the operant conditioning model and reinforcement theory?
    • Maslow
    • Skinner; (easy, p.41)
    • Bandura
    • Freud
    • Vroom
  1. Stimulus leads to response which leads to consequence, best illustrates which theory?
    1. Punishment
    1. Consequence
    1. Reinforcement (p.41-42)
    1. Needs
    1. Hierarchy of needs
  1. Negative reinforcement
    1. reduces the likelihood of a behaviour.
    1. increases the likelihood of a behaviour.
    1. requires removal of something unpleasant.
    1. both A & C.
    1. both B & C. (p.42)
  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding punishment?
    1. It does not usually reduce the future likelihood of a behaviour.
    1. It is a very effective form of motivation.
    1. Is the same as negative reinforcement.
    1. It is an undesirable training tool. (p.44)
    1. Randomly administering punishment keeps trainees on their toes.
  1. Which of following statements about expectancy theory is true?
    1. Expectancy 2 is related to self-efficacy.
    1. Valence is the measure used for expectancy 1.
    1. Self efficacy plays a large role in Expectancy 1 (difficult; p.45-49)
    1. The valence of outcomes is the same for everyone.
  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding expectancy theory?
    1. Expectancy 2 is the likelihood you will receive certain outcomes if you reach acceptable performance. (p.45)
    1. The values given for outcomes are represented by a value called expectancy 2.
    1. Expectancy 1 is represented on a scale from 1 to 10 with 1 being the minimum.
    1. Expectancy 2 is fixed in a person’s mind and is extremely difficult to change.
  1. The _____ the self‑efficacy, the _____ the performance.
    1. higher; worse
    1. higher; better (p.47)
    1. lower; worse
    1. lower; better
    1. all of the above are possible
  1. Which of the following statements regarding self‑efficacy is not true?
    1. Physical and emotional state is a factor when estimating an employee’s self‑efficacy.
    1. Those with high self‑efficacy are also likely to be self‑actualized. (challenging; p.47-48)
    1. The higher the self‑efficacy the better the performance.
    1. Feelings about one’s competency are reflected in the concept of self‑efficacy.
    1. Behavioural models can also influence an employee’s self‑efficacy.
  1. Which of the following statements best explains the relationship between training and self‑efficacy?
    1. The two concepts are not related.
    1. Training can act to improve low self‑efficacy only when employees have the required KSAs.
    1. It is useful to assess trainee self‑efficacy prior to training only.
    1. Self‑efficacy beliefs are a good predictor of learning in the training environment. (p.48)
  1. Which of the following is not true about studying motivation from a behaviourist approach?
    1. Accomodation is the process of responding to a stimulus in the environment. (p.49-50)
    1. It suggests that learning is controlled by the environment.
    1. It suggests that trainers control learning by controlling the stimuli and consequences that the learner experiences.
    1. Behaviourists particularly like the definition of learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour.
  1. Which of the following best describes the cognitive approach to training?
    1. Subject‑oriented
    1. Formal, authority‑oriented, judgmental, and competitive
    1. Interactive, group, project‑oriented, and experiential
    1. Relaxed, mutually trustful, respectful, and collaborative
    1. Both C & D (challenging; p.50)
  • Social  learning theory is
    • a behaviourist approach to learning
    • demonstrated when a person learns through observation rather than through doing. (p.51)
    • where symbolic coding is a stage of the attention process
    • demonstrated when a person answers questions before the full question is asked.
  • In social learning theory, retention has three phases which are
    • attention, symbolic rehersal, behavioural reproduction.
    • recognize, recall, retain.
    • attention, motivation, cognitive organization.
    • none of the above. (p.51-54)
  • Asking trainees to provide examples of how the training content relates to what they already know facilitates
    • Classical conditioning.
    • verbal association learning.
    • cognitive organization. (challenging; p.53)
    • operant conditioning.
  • Symbolic coding is
    • the second stage of attracting attention.
    • where you rehearse in your mind how to “do it.”
    • part of the retention process. (p.53)
    • a design method for assuring learning.
  • _____ is practicing symbolically and _____ is the transformation of the learning into actual behaviour.
    • Symbolic coding; rehearsal behaviour
    • Symbolic rehearsal; behavioural reproduction (p.53
    • Symbolic rehearsal; symbolic behaviour
    • Cognitive rehearsal; behavioural reproduction
    • Cognitive organization; reproduction
  • The Gagne-Briggs theory of instructional design
    • has three events: attention, retention, and behavioural reproduction.
    • has “gaining attention” as its first event. (p.54)
    • is only useful for designing effective lectures.
    • both A & B.
  • When there is a major paradigm shift such as moving from hierarchical to consensus decision making, the reason supervisors resist is
    • assimilation is required which is very difficult.
    • accommodation is required which is very difficult.              (p.58)
    • supervisors tend to want to always make decisions.
    • consensus simply does not work in the North American organization.
  • The power that a group has over its members was first noted in which studies of the 1920’s and the 1930’s?
    • Watson studies
    • Hawthorne studies (p.59)   
    • Pajama factory studies
    • Group norm studies
  • The power of the group comes from the group _______ members that follow group norms, or _______ those that do not.
    • Punishing; rewarding
    • Rewarding; training
    • Requesting; training
    • Rewarding; punishing (p.59)


  • ____Performance is a function of motivation times KSAs. (F; p.37)
  • ____ The best way to improve employee performance is to “copy” a           successful organization’s motivational tactics. (F; p.36)
  • ____Needs theories attempt to describe and explain how a person’s             needs are translated into actions to satisfy their needs. (F; p.38)
  • ____Relatedness is the middle need in Alderfer’s needs theory. (T;             p.38)
  • ____Negative reinforcement reduces the likelihood that a behaviour           will be repeated. (F; p.42)
  • ____Punishment is an undesirable management and training tool. (T;         p.44)
  • ____Self-efficacy is an important concept in understanding             motivation. (T; p.47)
  • ____One of the differences between the behaviourist and cognitive             approach to learning is that the cognitive approach is more           subject oriented and developed by the instructor. (F; p. 45)


  • Explain the ERG theory.

ERG is an acronym representing the three basic needs of the theory: existence, relatedness, and growth.  Existence needs are the needs people have to sustain life, as well as the need to have some security about one’s future ability to have a safe and healthy life.  Relatedness needs reflect people’s needs to be valued and accepted by others.  Growth needs include a feeling of self‑worth and competency and achieving one’s potential.

  • Explain reinforcement theory’s contribution to understanding motivation, and explain what other theory is closely related and the foundation of the two theories.

Reinforcement theory provides some important answers for how needs are translated into action, but fails to answer other important questions.  Reinforcement theory is closely related to the operant conditioning theory of learning.  A foundation of reinforcement theory is Thorndike’s law of effect which states that behaviour followed by satisfying experiences tends to be repeated, and behaviour followed by annoyance or dissatisfaction tends to be avoided.

  • Compare and contrast accommodation and assimilation with respect to learning and the cognitive theory.

Accommodation is the process of changing our construction of the world (cognitive map) to correspond with our experience in it.  Assimilation is the incorporation of new experience into existing categories.  Therefore, in cognitive map terms, accommodation changes the map whereas assimilation fills in the detail.


  • Two definitions of learning were presented in the text, one was behavioural and one was cognitive. Explain each and indicate the major difference between these definitions and what the training implications of each are.

The behavioural definition of learning is that learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour. Learning is, therefore, inferred from behaviour. The cognitive approach agrees that learning can be inferred from behaviour but the learning is separate from it. In other words learning can, and does take place prior to the behaviour. In fact, they argue that someone can have learned something and be aware of the new concept for months before exhibiting it behaviourally. Learning for the cognitive theorists is the addition to and reorganization of new knowledge and skills into mental models.  So for the cognitive theorists, learning can occur without others knowing it has occurred.

Implications for each of the approaches on training are significant in the way training is conducted on a number of levels. First the learner’s role is active and self directed for the cognitive theorists and passive for the behaviourist approach. The instructor’s role is as a facilitator in the cognitive approach and more directive in the behaviourist approach. Training content is problem oriented for the cognitive approach and subject oriented for the behaviourist. Cognitive approach suggests trainee motivation comes from within the trainee, where the behaviourist approach suggests it is external. Training climate is relaxed in the cognitive approach, whereas it is much more formal in the behaviourist approach. The training goals for cognitive theorists are collaborative vs. instructor generated in the behaviourist approach.  Finally, the activities are more interactive in the cognitive approach, rather than directive. As can be seen, the two approaches lead to very different ways of designing training.

Microscopy Project

Your study should include the use of the electron microscope and the stepped-Z light microscope. You should also incorporate information from the datasheets and other information about both structures.

*the project should be similar to the following projects 



*the project should be include

– data Sheet for the device

– connection between somthing on data sheet and something that you see. (e.i. Circuit)

– dimensions on shape.( e.i. Measur something/ material )

* lessons you learned 

– state the lesson in short paragrap.

– situation.

– emotional content.

– how you use the metality.

I attached the photo that I took it from the microscopes.


MFG438 Final Project

You are to choose a research project in regards to sustainability. You are to research the problem and research solutions to this problem

Problem – Choose a research project in sustainability in regards your community

The project must contain some academic research. The problem must be stated with reasons why it is a problem. Then solutions must be presented with the likelihood of these being implemented. 

Some examples  

1) Choose a house in the student neighborhood. Convert it to a LEED home with a cost analysis

2) How would we make Kettering Labs zero solid waste

3) Convert maintenance vehicles to be sustainable

4) Convert the campus vans to be sustainable

5) Conservation of water on campus. How would we implement a plan to reduce water consumption by 50%

Deliverables – You will deliver an academic report. This will include no less than 5 academic sources. 

Post the author guidelines of your selected journal for submission of your EBP article.

Question Description

Topic 1: Author Guidelines a Must

Identify the author guidelines of your selected nursing periodical.

  • Post the author guidelines of your selected journal for submission of your EBP article.
  • Discuss why you chose the journal you decided upon. What appealed to you?