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AU Discover New Cyber Attack in The USA Daily Essay


It seems that every day we hear of another cyber-attack on the United States. Some of these attacks are targeting databases of corporations, others are against the government or our critical infrastructure, some are in retaliation and are designed to be destructive, and others are designed to hold information or computers hostage until people or corporations pay ransom to get control of their computers and get their information back. Some of these attacks are by States and others by criminal elements. All of these come under the purview of the Department of Homeland Security.

Prior to posting your initial post go to the UAGC Library to conduct your initial research. Identify a credible source (this is a step down from a “scholarly source” and includes editorials from reputable news sources and TV documentaries). Use the Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) document for guidance. Identify issues that are applicable to cyber security. Please ensure your references are less than 5 years old. Then go to the Department of Homeland Security website to review the Safeguard and Secure Cyberspace mission.

Initial Post. 1st Post Due by Day 3. As you analyze the types of cyber-attacks, current science and technology, and the mission of the Department of Homeland Security do you believe the Department of Homeland Security is up to the task of defending and securing the nation’s cyberspace? Does the Department of Homeland Security have the tools, tactics, and techniques available to defend and secure the cyberspace? 

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UAGC Preparedness Response & Recovery, Katrina Research Paper


Over the last couple years it seems the number and severity of natural disasters has markedly increased. Since the low point of the response to Hurricane Katrina and the subsequent legislation to fix the federal response to disasters, is the Department of Homeland Security doing better in its coordinated responses? Is the current National Response Framework working? How do we balance the response and the need for controlling budget costs? In this assignment select one national level response to a hurricane, wild fire, or other natural hazard to evaluate the preparedness, response, and recovery efforts to the event. Your response should be written from a local, state, or federal perspective. Or you may examine the response from the perspective of a not-for-profit such as the International Red Cross of the Salvation Army.

To begin your research for this assignment, go to the UAGC Library and conduct a search with the keywords “Federal Response to Disasters.” It is recommended that you do not use quotation marks for this search.

In your paper,

  • Summarize the natural disaster.
  • Evaluate the response from a local, state, or federal perspective.
  • Identify the core issues that delayed or hindered the response.
  • Identify what went right with the disaster response.
  • Analyze the current Department of Homeland Security processes and procedures to determine their effectiveness for similar future disasters.

The Preparation, Response, and Recovery paper

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United States Constitutional Law


Must know about Motor Vehicle Search, Searches Warrant Exception, Interrogations, Eye Witnesses, Line ups/ identifications, searches and seizures,

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Xiamen University Wellness Rider Program Would Benefit Arbor Law Firm Analysis


Since the second half of the twentieth century international courts and tribunals have proliferated. One of the often-mentioned consequences of this process is fragmentation of international law.

  • Explain, with the help of at least one concrete example, what fragmentation of international law means in the light of proliferation of courts and tribunals.

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Week 1 Narayan v Eg Linc Case Study Questions


Week 1 Case Questions

Select TWO court cases (from different chapters) from the list below, and respond in writing to the case questions.

Casias v. Wal-Mart Stores 

Nino v. The Jewelry Exchange 

EEOC v. Autozone 

Narayan v. EGL, Inc. 

Glatt v. Fox Searchligh Pictures

Zheng v. Liberty Apparel Co.

Jones v. Oklahoma City Public Schools 

Diaz v. Kraft Foods Global 

Chattman v. Toho Tenax America 

Geleta v. Gray 

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Xiamen Legal Effects of Fact that Prohibition of Genocide Is Jus Cogens Norm Questions


The prohibition of genocide is considered to be a jus cogens norm.

  1. Explain what jus cogens means.
  2. Explain at least two legal effects of the fact that the prohibition of genocide is a jus cogens norm.

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Purdue University Law Graham v Connor Case Discussion


The case Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386 (1989)(not in textbook find your own source material) is very important to police use of force. First, explain the details of the case. Next, explain its importance to law enforcement’s use of force. Lastly, tell me what you think about the reasonableness standard. Should it be changed? If so, why? If it shouldn’t be changed, why?

Approximately one page to answer the question. Response should be in Times New Roman, 12 font, double spaced. Cite sources using APA.

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Cuyamaca College Mariam Ramzi Sharon Sampson Presentation


Former No. 2 in L.A. Sheriff’s office surrenders to prison to serve 5-year sentence

Paul Tanaka

*****In teams of 2-4 address all facets of the assignment (I, II & III) to earn maximum points.

The Eighth Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment. Eighth Amendment lawsuits claim problems in medical care, the use of force by correctional officers, the failure of prison officials to protect inmates from attacks by other inmates, and improper conditions of confinement.


I. Summarize the facts of the case in the grand jury indictment.

II. Critically assess whether there were 8th Amendment violations of the rights of inmates in the men’s central jail?

III. Review the sentencing document on Paul Tanaka (Undersheriff) Tanaka Sentence Document (Links to an external site.) link

IV. Respond to the following questions:

  1. Q: Did the undersheriff deserve to go to jail for his role in the conduct of his deputies?
  2. Q: Did the Sheriff deserve to go to jail?

V. Research a case that involves the violation of the rights of prisoners. Summarize the facts of the case

Or you

  • Research one of the U.S. Supreme Court case decision noted below that addresses the rights of prisoners’. Is there a correlation between the conduct reported in the indictment, your independent researched case, and the issues addressed in the Supreme court case decisions? Discuss your findings.
  • Helling v. McKinney
  • Pell v. Procunier
  • Wolff v. McDonnell
  • Cooper v. Morin
  • Coffin v. Reichard
  • Farmer v. Brenna.
  • You may also research -Additional Categories: County Jail conditions; Disability Rights; Excessive Force; General Conditions; Overcrowding.


Develop a 10- to 15-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation that includes all three facets of the bullets noted above. **Include detailed explanations in the speaker notes section that correlate with each point.

Include videos, audio, photos, diagrams, or graphs as appropriate the paper and presentation consistent with APA guidelines format

*You will be graded on both your written and response to the presentations of your colleagues.

  • The written PowerPoint presentation is worth 20 points.

*Follow the 7X7 rule when completing your PowerPoint. No more seven bullets per slide. Note details/summary of the case in the speaker notes section at the bottom of the slide. Include a cover and reference page. Be sure to include graphics in your presentation slides. Brief video clips are allowed.

  • Review and respond to the PPT posts of at least two colleagues.

The link below is a youtube video on how to complete a PowerPoint presentation.…/Basic-tasks-for-creating-a-PowerPoint-presentation-efbbc

As a reminder, you are not sending out a text message or tweet, so when writing your post, use proper English, grammar, and writing mechanics.

Use the “Reply” icon to start your discussion. Once you type and spell-check your thread, use the “Post Reply” icon to submit your thoughts. Use can also review the Canvas video Links to an external site.on posting discussions.

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CU Assessment of The Value of The Budget Cycle Discussion



Discussion Thread: Budget Cycle

Assessment of the Value of the Budget Cycle

In this discussion, the budget model used is that of school districts in California. In comparison with other states and the federal government, California school districts do not have the power to tax. That privilege ended in 1978 with law changes that fixed the allocation to 1% of property values within the jurisdiction. This makes budgeting somewhat difficult as the revenues are limited by the allocation, part state, and part local, as well as revenues generated by enterprise funds and grants. Fiscal control, however, remains an important focus as explained by Mikesell, “The first expectation of a budget process is that it will be a tool for fiscal discipline” (Mikesell, 2017, 158).

Revenue Estimation and Budget Formulation: To estimate revenues, fiscal officers utilize trend analysis processes that include past student enrollment for forecasting as well as prior per-student allocations plus the inflation factors normally added to the apportionment formulas. This process allows for “close to reality” assumptions that allow for a precise budget building with allocations for the various departments and schools. As Ammons explains, “Each local government department may have particularized tactics. Staffing norms, professional standards, real and imagined mandates, benchmarks, accreditation, and surveys all help agencies to justify budgets” (Rubin, 2015, 182). Local accountability laws passed in 2015 mandate stakeholder input in the budget development process, including the formation of committees that include staff, students, elected officials, and public input. The stakeholder input has been built into the local control formulas, which mandate that the revenues are directly related to the proposed and ongoing programs for the budget year. This stakeholder involvement is similar to the federal process explained by Mikesell: “Not only is the budget a financial accounting of the receipts and expenditures of the federal government; it also sets forth a plan for allocating resources—between the public and private sectors and within the public sector—to meet national objectives” (Mikesell, 2017, 155).

Budget Hearings and Budget Adoption: The state requires a budget adoption calendar that includes stakeholder involvement assurances and a public hearing at a different meeting than that for the budget adoption. The hearing meeting allows for public input and for the Board of Education to ask questions concerning the proposed budget and direct changes to be implemented by the executives. The state mandates that these meetings result in the adoption of a balanced budget by July 1. The Bible, in Corinthians, explains the fiscal cycle and budget obligations: “On the first day of every week, each one of you should set aside a sum of money in keeping with your income, saving it up, so that when I come no collections will have to be made” (ESV Bible, 2001, Corinthians 16:2).

Budget Execution: The annual budget process requires quarterly meetings, called interim reports, which require adjustments and reporting of updates to the Board of Education and the State. This process also serves to start the development of the subsequent year’s budget and mandates the implementation of multi-year projections that serve to analyze the sustainability of the proposed budgetary reports for the required three years. To complete the process, the fiscal team must make a variety of assumptions and estimations, as Ammons explains, “Each local government department may have particularized tactics. Staffing norms, professional standards, real and imagined mandates, benchmarks, accreditation, and surveys all help agencies to justify budgets” (Rubin, 2015, 182)

Assessment of the Value of Budgetary Planning Techniques

Trend Analysis-Fiscal offices are required to develop multi-year analyses to examine long-term revenues and expenditures, both for the justification of new programs and the sustainability of existing programs and mandates. The historical perspective serves to identify trends that can support or reject the fiscal plans of a particular department or school and provide the governance team with the background needed for budgetary decisions.

Driver-Based Planning-The state-mandated local control formulas require financial planning reporting based on organizational objectives, stakeholder-driven educational goals, student enrollment trends, and the actual student attendance factors, all of which serve to provide the amount of state funding received, thus incentivizing districts to increase student attendance.

Financial Modeling-In addition to basic planning models, Sexton (2010) explains that fiscal teams utilize demographic studies and legislative reviews to develop more sophisticated forecasting models that take into consideration new developments that can generate students, like housing, and plans that can decrease revenues, such as eminent domain for the development of a new rail system or commercial venture, as explained by Rubin: “budgeters tend to weigh political cues more heavily than economic cues, even though economic factors play a significant role in the analysts’ decision process” (Rubin, 2015, 194).

Forecasting – Fiscal officers develop “cohort-survival” forecasting systems to predict student populations and where in the district changes will take place to better direct resources and programs to those areas. As Korey (2011) explains, economic factors and more complex analysis involving birth records and other demographic factors can provide more precise information for budgetary and program development, allowing for better budgeting than a simple incremental approach, as explained by Rubin: “As incrementalism falls away, the books get more complex, more interesting, and less internally contradictory”  and “ Recent work has changed the view of budgeting as the allocation of dollars to the allocation of a variety of resources, including loans, subsidies, insurance, and grants” (Rubin, 2015, 187-189).

In conclusion, although California education budgeting has many similarities to state and federal budgeting, the direct involvement of the public, although sometimes underinformed (McGhee, 2010), provides a level of responsiveness and accountability that varies from the other levels of government, as well as more immediate public reaction about the results of the budget allocations.


English Standard Version Bible. (2001). ESV Online.

Korey. (2011). California: A Failed State or Too Big to Fail? California Journal of Politics and Policy., 3(2), 1–22.

McGhee, E. M. (2010) “How Much Does the Public Know About the State Budget, and Does It Matter?” California journal of politics and policy. 2.3. 1–22. Web.

Mikesell, J. (2017). Fiscal Administration (10th Edition). Cengage Learning US.…

Rubin, I. S. (2015). Public Budgeting. Taylor & Francis.

Sexton. (2010). A Blueprint for Rebuilding California’s Antiquated Fiscal Structure: Review of California in the Balance: Why Budgets Matter. California Journal of Politics and Policy., 2(1), 1–7.

Stone, Samuel B. “Boom & Bust: The Politics of the California Budget, by Jeff Cummins. Berkeley: Berkeley Public Policy Press.” Public budgeting & finance. 35.4 (2015): 112–115. Web.